And the printing presses keep on churning

An early year bibliography review, including books soon-to-appear.

Forssberg, Anna Maria. The Story of War: Church and Propaganda in France and Sweden 1610–1710. Lund, Sweden: Nordic Academic Press, 2017.
Abstract: ”O God we thank thee” was sung in the churches of France and Sweden after military victories in the seventeenth century. To celebrate Thanksgiving was a way of thanking God, but also a way for the rulers to legitimize the ever ongoing wars. For the inhabitants it was both an occasion for festivity and a way of getting information about what happened in the battlefield. Yet the image given was selective. Bloody defeats and uneventful everyday life was replaced by spectacular victories and royal glory. Even though the rituals in the two countries were similar in some ways, there were also substantial differences. The propaganda formulated a narrative about what war actually was, and what role the rulers and their subjects should play. In the crisis of 1709 this narrative was profoundly challenged. The book investigates how war events were communicated to the inhabitants of France and Sweden in the seventeenth century by the Church, and especially through days of thanksgiving (called Te Deum in France).
For those who read French, there’s the edited collection Le soldat face au clerc. Armée et religion en Europe occidental (XVe-XIXe siècles), which includes chapters like:
  • Boltanski, Ariane. “L’encadrement religieux des armées associées à la Ligue (1590-1592).” In Le soldat face au clerc. Armée et religion en Europe occidentale (XVe-XIXe siècle), edited by Laurent Jalabert and Stefano Simiz, 111–28. Rennes: Presses Universitaires de Rennes, 2016.
  • Bourdeu, Étienne. “La monarchie, la dynastie ou la religion? Les Espagnols et la Ligue catholique (1618-1619).” In Le soldat face au clerc. Armée et religion en Europe occidentale (XVe-XIXe siècle), edited by Laurent Jalabert and Stefano Simiz, 229–44. Rennes: Presses Universitaires de Rennes, 2016.
  • Burkardt, Albrecht. “Mercenaires et Inquisition romaine (XVIe-XVIIIe siècle).” In Le soldat face au clerc. Armée et religion en Europe occidentale (XVe-XIXe siècle), edited by Laurent Jalabert and Stefano Simiz, 209–28. Rennes: Presses Universitaires de Rennes, 2016.
  • Chaline, Olivier. “Les clercs et les armes à l’époque moderne: quelques remarques.” In Le soldat face au clerc. Armée et religion en Europe occidentale (XVe-XIXe siècle), edited by Laurent Jalabert and Stefano Simiz, 97–110. Rennes: Presses Universitaires de Rennes, 2016.
  • Galland, Caroline. “«Des missions aux armées et aux hospitaux»: les aumôniers récollets sous le règne de Louis XIV.” In Le soldat face au clerc. Armée et religion en Europe occidentale (XVe-XIXe siècle), edited by Laurent Jalabert and Stefano Simiz, 35–50. Rennes: Presses Universitaires de Rennes, 2016.
  • Léonard, Julien. “Les pasteurs de Metz face au pouvoir militaire (XVIe-XVIIe siècle): des hommes de Dieu dans une ville de garnison.” In Le soldat face au clerc. Armée et religion en Europe occidentale (XVe-XIXe siècle), edited by Laurent Jalabert and Stefano Simiz, 65–82. Rennes: Presses Universitaires de Rennes, 2016.
  • Lepri, Valentina. “Military Strategies Versus ‘Humanae Litterae’. The Rules of Domenico Mora, Chief of the Army in 16th-Century Poland.” In Books for Captains and Captains in Books: Shaping the Perfect Military Commander in Early Modern Europe, edited by Marco Faini and Maria Elena Severini, 65–76. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2016.
  • Masson, Christophe. “Le rôle des ecclésiastiques dans les armées françaises d’Italie à l’époque du Grand Schisme d’Occident (1382-1411).” In Le soldat face au clerc. Armée et religion en Europe occidentale (XVe-XIXe siècle), edited by Laurent Jalabert and Stefano Simiz, 83–96. Rennes: Presses Universitaires de Rennes, 2016.
  • Meyer, Frédéric. “L’impossible aumônerie militaire en France sous l’Ancien Régime.” In Le soldat face au clerc. Armée et religion en Europe occidentale (XVe-XIXe siècle), edited by Laurent Jalabert and Stefano Simiz, 51–64. Rennes: Presses Universitaires de Rennes, 2016.
  • Muller, Claude. “Dieu et Mars: le clergé alsacien pendant la guerre de Succession d’Espagne (1702-1714).” In Le soldat face au clerc. Armée et religion en Europe occidentale (XVe-XIXe siècle), edited by Laurent Jalabert and Stefano Simiz, 129–44. Rennes: Presses Universitaires de Rennes, 2016.
  • Nijenhuis-Bescher, Andreas. “«On a laissé quelques Couvens de Religieuses, mais chassé tous les gens de l’église»: la «Milice» des Provinces-Unies sous Frédéric-Henri d’Orange (1584-1647) bras armé d’un État confessionnel.” In Le soldat face au clerc. Armée et religion en Europe occidentale (XVe-XIXe siècle), edited by Laurent Jalabert and Stefano Simiz, 245–68. Rennes: Presses Universitaires de Rennes, 2016.
  • Picaud-Monnerat, Sandrine. “L’armée et l’Église pendant la guerre de Succession d’Autriche: les campagnes de Flandre (1744-1748) vues du côté français.” In Le soldat face au clerc. Armée et religion en Europe occidentale (XVe-XIXe siècle), edited by Laurent Jalabert and Stefano Simiz, 145–62. Rennes: Presses Universitaires de Rennes, 2016.
  • Simiz, Stefano. “Prêcher aux militaires: les sermons de l’abbé Demaugre vers 1775.” In Le soldat face au clerc. Armée et religion en Europe occidentale (XVe-XIXe siècle), edited by Laurent Jalabert and Stefano Simiz, 179–90. Rennes: Presses Universitaires de Rennes, 2016.
  • Boniface, Xavier. “Conclusion. Armée et religion XVe-XIXe siècle.” In Le soldat face au clerc. Armée et religion en Europe occidentale (XVe-XIXe siècle), edited by Laurent Jalabert and Stefano Simiz, 269–76. Rennes: Presses Universitaires de Rennes, 2016.
And how about:
Strickland, Lloyd. “Leibniz’s Egypt Plan (1671–1672): From Holy War to Ecumenism.” Intellectual History Review 26, no. 4 (December 2016): 461–76.

In other words, war, religion and peace are becoming quite the topic, recall the parallel English publication of The European Wars of Religion: An Interdisciplinary Reassessment of Sources, Interpretations, and Myths, edited by Wolfgang Palaver, Dietmar Regensburger, and Harriet Rudolph. Ashgate, 2016. And that’s a good thing.

And since I’ve already cited one French book, I guess I can cite a few more items:

Chaline, Olivier. Les armées du Roi – Le grand chantier XVIIe-XVIIIe siècle: Le grand chantier – XVIIe-XVIIIe siècle. Paris: Armand Colin, 2016.
Denys, Catherine. “The Police and Justice Systems of Soldiers and Burghers in Eighteenth-Century Brussels.” In Militär und Recht vom 16. bis 19. Jahrhundert: Gelehrter Diskurs – Praxis – Transformationen, edited by Jutta Nowosadtko, Kai Lohsträter, and Diethelm Klippel, 1st ed., 171–86. V&R unipress, 2016.
Denys, Catherine. “Les ingénieurs du roi de France auprès de la couronne d’Espagne (1704-1715) / The Engineers of the King of France with the Ear of the Crown of Spain, 1704–1715.” Vegueta: Anuario de la Facultad de Geografía e Historia, no. 16 (2016): 67–92.

And now that I’ve created separate Zotero records for individual chapters, I can include a few from a previous mention:

  • Breccia, Gastone. “Virtus Under Fire. Renaissance Leaders in a Deadlier Battlefield.” In Books for Captains and Captains in Books: Shaping the Perfect Military Commander in Early Modern Europe, edited by Marco Faini and Maria Elena Severini, 21–34. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2016.
  • Faini, Marco. “The Holy Captain: Military Command and Sacredness in the Early-Modern Age.” In Books for Captains and Captains in Books: Shaping the Perfect Military Commander in Early Modern Europe, edited by Marco Faini and Maria Elena Severini, 117–34. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2016.
  • Manfredini, Ilario. “The Image of the ‘Soldier Prince’ in Florence and Turin in the Second Half of the Sixteenth Century.” In Books for Captains and Captains in Books: Shaping the Perfect Military Commander in Early Modern Europe, edited by Marco Faini and Maria Elena Severini, 165–76. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2016.
  • Tranquilli, Vittorio. “The Heroism of Jests in Francesco Andreini’s Le Bravure Del Capitano Spavento.” In Books for Captains and Captains in Books: Shaping the Perfect Military Commander in Early Modern Europe, edited by Marco Faini and Maria Elena Severini, 149–64. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2016.
  • Vesiero, Marco. “‘Risistere Alla Furia De’ Cavagli E Degli Omini D’arme’. A Lost Book for a Condottiere by Leonardo Da Vinci.” In Books for Captains and Captains in Books: Shaping the Perfect Military Commander in Early Modern Europe, edited by Marco Faini and Maria Elena Severini, 103–16. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2016.
And lest we forget how nasty warfare really is:
  • Hall, Dianne. “‘Most Barbarously and Inhumaine Maner Butchered’: Masculinity, Trauma, and Memory in Early Modern Ireland.” In The Body in Pain in Irish Literature and Culture, edited by Fionnuala Dillane, Naomi McAreavey, and Emilie Pine, 39–55. Palgrave Macmillan, 2016.
  • Peters, Erin. “Trauma Narratives of the English Civil War.” Journal for Early Modern Cultural Studies 16, no. 1 (Winter 2016).
The nastiness goes more than flesh-deep, as is indicated by the forthcoming Kuijpers, Erika, and Cornelis van der Haven, eds. Battlefield Emotions 1500-1800: Practices, Experience, Imagination. 1st ed. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017:
  • Bähr, Andreas. “Magical Swords and Heavenly Weapons: Battlefield Fear(lessness) in the Seventeenth Century.” In Battlefield Emotions 1500-1800: Practices, Experience, Imagination, edited by Erika Kuijpers and Cornelis van der Haven, 49–69. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017.
  • Berkovich, Ilya. “Fear, Honour and Emotional Control on the Eighteenth-Century Battlefield.” In Battlefield Emotions 1500-1800: Practices, Experience, Imagination, edited by Erika Kuijpers and Cornelis van der Haven, 93–110. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017.
  • De Boer, Lisa. “The Sidelong Glance: Tracing Battlefield Emotions in Dutch Art of the Golden Age.” In Battlefield Emotions 1500-1800: Practices, Experience, Imagination, edited by Erika Kuijpers and Cornelis van der Haven, 207–27. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017.
  • Favret, Mary A. “Whose Battlefield Emotion?” In Battlefield Emotions 1500-1800: Practices, Experience, Imagination, edited by Erika Kuijpers and Cornelis van der Haven, 197–204. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017.
  • Füssel, Marian. “Emotions in the Making: The Transformation of Battlefield Experiences during the Seven Years’ War (1756–1763).” In Battlefield Emotions 1500-1800: Practices, Experience, Imagination, edited by Erika Kuijpers and Cornelis van der Haven, 149–72. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017.
  • Germani, Ian. “Mediated Battlefields of the French Revolution and Emotives at Work.” In Battlefield Emotions 1500-1800: Practices, Experience, Imagination, edited by Erika Kuijpers and Cornelis van der Haven, 173–94. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017.
  • Haven, Cornelis van der. “Drill and Allocution as Emotional Practices in Seventeenth-Century Dutch Poetry, Plays and Military Treatises.” In Battlefield Emotions 1500-1800: Practices, Experience, Imagination, edited by Erika Kuijpers and Cornelis van der Haven, 25–47. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017.
  • Kuijpers, Erika, and Cornelis van der Haven. “Battlefield Emotions 1500–1800: Practices, Experience, Imagination.” In Battlefield Emotions 1500-1800: Practices, Experience, Imagination, edited by Erika Kuijpers and Cornelis van der Haven, 3–21. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017.
  • Mainz, Valerie. “Deflecting the Fire of Eighteenth-Century French Battle Painting.” In Battlefield Emotions 1500-1800: Practices, Experience, Imagination, edited by Erika Kuijpers and Cornelis van der Haven, 229–47. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017.
  • Noak, Bettina. “Emotions, Imagination and Surgery: Wounded Warriors in the Work of Ambroise Paré and Johan van Beverwijck.” In Battlefield Emotions 1500-1800: Practices, Experience, Imagination, edited by Erika Kuijpers and Cornelis van der Haven, 71–91. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017.
  • Sandberg, Brian. “‘His Courage Produced More Fear in His Enemies than Shame in His Soldiers’: Siege Combat and Emotional Display in the French Wars of Religion.” In Battlefield Emotions 1500-1800: Practices, Experience, Imagination, edited by Erika Kuijpers and Cornelis van der Haven, 127–48. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017.
  • Shaw, Philip. “Picturing Valenciennes: Philippe-Jacques de Loutherbourg and the Emotional Regulation of British Military Art in the 1790s.” In Battlefield Emotions 1500-1800: Practices, Experience, Imagination, edited by Erika Kuijpers and Cornelis van der Haven, 249–67. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017.
  • Sturkenboom, Dorothee. “Battlefield Emotions in Early Modern Europe: Trends, Key Issues and Blind Spots.” In Battlefield Emotions 1500-1800: Practices, Experience, Imagination, edited by Erika Kuijpers and Cornelis van der Haven, 271–83. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017.
  • Verberckmoes, Johan. “Early Modern Jokes on Fearing Soldiers.” In Battlefield Emotions 1500-1800: Practices, Experience, Imagination, edited by Erika Kuijpers and Cornelis van der Haven, 113–24. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2017.
But let’s give the Spanish Habsburgs their due:
Martínez, Miguel. Front Lines: Soldiers’ Writing in the Early Modern Hispanic World. S.l.: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2016.
Abstract: In Front Lines, Miguel Martínez documents the literary practices of imperial Spain’s common soldiers. Against all odds, these Spanish soldiers produced, distributed, and consumed a remarkably innovative set of works on war that have been almost completely neglected in literary and historical scholarship. The soldiers of Italian garrisons and North African presidios, on colonial American frontiers and in the traveling military camps of northern Europe read and wrote epic poems, chronicles, ballads, pamphlets, and autobiographies—the stories of the very same wars in which they participated as rank-and-file fighters and witnesses. The vast network of agents and spaces articulated around the military institutions of an ever-expanding and struggling Spanish empire facilitated the global circulation of these textual materials, creating a soldierly republic of letters that bridged the Old and the many New Worlds of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.Martínez asserts that these writing soldiers played a key role in the shaping of Renaissance literary culture, which for its part gave to them the language and forms with which to question received notions of the social logic of warfare, the ethics of violence, and the legitimacy of imperial aggression. Soldierly writing often voiced criticism of established hierarchies and exploitative working conditions, forging solidarities among the troops that often led to mutiny and massive desertion. It is the perspective of these soldiers that grounds Front Lines, a cultural history of Spain’s imperial wars as told by the common men who fought them.
Mawson, Stephanie J. “Convicts or Conquistadores? Spanish Soldiers in the Seventeenth-Century Pacific.” Past & Present 232, no. 1 (August 1, 2016): 87–125.
Navarro-Loidi, Juan. “Cadet Selection for the Royal Artillery in Spain, 1764–1808.” Vulcan 4, no. 1 (August 1, 2016): 27–51.
Luengo, Pedro. “Military Engineering in Eighteenth-Century Havana and Manila: The Experience of the Seven Years War.” War in History 24, no. 1 (January 1, 2017): 4–27.
And can I get a ‘Hell Yeah!” for the Oirish?
  • O’Neill, James. “A Kingdom near Lost: English Military Recovery in Ireland, 1600-03.” British Journal for Military History 3, no. 1 (November 3, 2016)..
  • O’Neill, James. “Three Sieges and Two Massacres: Enniskillen at the Outbreak of the Nine Years’ War, 1593-5.” ResearchGate 30 (November 1, 2016): 241–49.
[Insert your own British Isles transition here, preferably something about Brexit, because I’ve got bupkis]:
Peters, Kate. “The Quakers and the Politics of the Army in the Crisis of 1659.” Past & Present, May 16, 2016.
And, most surprising of all, I just learned that my very own regional public university has hired someone who actually studies early modern (Spanish) military culture, so her work deserves a shout out as well:
  • Nájera, Luna. “Masculinity, War, and Pursuit of Glory in Sepúlveda’s ‘Gonzalo.’” Hispanic Review 80, no. 3 (2012): 391–412.
  • Nájera, Luna. “The Deployment of the Classics in Early Modern Spanish Military Manuals.” Sixteenth Century Journal 46, no. 3 (Fall 2015): 607–27.

Phew, I’m tired. I better go have a lay-down.

No wonder we historians are bad at math – they keep changing the answers

Apropos an old thread on naming wars based off their duration (and how complicated that really is), this story appeared recently on my History News Network feed. It’s neither early modern nor European, but it’s been a busy six months.

file-jan-13-9-59-00-pm

Story from the New York Times: https://www.nytimes.com/2017/01/11/world/asia/china-japan-textbooks-war.html?_r=0

Professor: “How long was the Eight-Year War of Resistance against Japanese Aggression”?
Student: “Eight years.”
Professor: “Wrong. Fourteen.”

My main thought: while it’s nice that there’s an official name for wars, just imagine the need to change all those references and Library of Congress subject headings. Ugh.

 

Catch up, Post-First-Snow-Flurries 2016 edition

Busy with various projects, including designing a digital history lab.

But I did attend the Joe Guilmartin memorial conference earlier this semester, where the attendees alternated between laughing at our collective recitation of Guilmartin’s many bons mots, and growing contemplative (and perhaps wiping away a stray tear or two) as his former advisees testified to his impact on their academic careers.

My contribution to the proceedings was to open up the conference with a broad think-piece about developing a more precise taxonomy/typology of the levels of war, spurred by JFG’s introduction to the subject long long ago. A few examples of the course materials he handed out in his seminal European Warfare course.

1st page of JFG syllabus, circa 1993 - note the early use of visuals.

1st page of JFG syllabus, circa 1993 – note the early use of visuals.

JFG Definitions and Tactics handout

JFG Definitions and Tactics handout

 

So here’s the revised “strategy” matrix. There are plans for conference proceedings, wherein I’ll explicate the below chart (and much more), and add a few more levels. So feel free to leave suggestions or comments. especially about those pesky column labels.

Next draft of military techniques (was Strategy Matrix, but I'm having issues with the term "strategy")

Next draft of military operational techniques (was “Strategy Matrix”, but I’m having issues with the term “strategy”). The gray cells are generally more extreme war objectives, often described as “total war.”

Catch up, Fall 2016 edition

Finished revisions for “More Honored in the Breach?” siege capitulation chapter? Check.

Edited more chapters in World of the Siege collection? Check.

Read through (half of) Gillian Rose’s Visual Methodologies (4th ed.) and converted her Critical Visual Methodology circle (p. 25) into a matrix generalized for textual sources? Check.

screenshot-2016-09-16-10-04-57

Viewed the Watteau’s Soldiers exhibit at the Frick in NYC? Check.
A video of the curator’s analysis of the works here. Think interiority and Watteau’s refusal/inability to make his figures interact with each other. Or, you can read it:
Wile, Aaron. Watteau’s Soldiers: Scenes of Military Life in Eighteenth-Century France. New York: GILES, 2016.
Related talks here.

Completed last hoop of West Point History of Warfare iBook chapter, wearing navy slacks and blazer with matching slippers in video intro? Check.

Taught first three weeks of French Revolution and Napoleon (and Western Civ, part deux)? Check.

Purchased Amazon Echo and dove back into Spotify? Check.

amazon_b00x4whp5e_echo_1444680325000_1187819

Set up Historical playlists in Spotify to play on web player in class? Check.
screenshot-2016-09-16-10-02-48

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Downloaded 194 articles and book chapters from Academic Search Premier and the new Books at JSTOR? Check.

Entered bibliographic info on new(ish) publications? Check.

  • Ansani, Fabrizio. “Craftsmen, Artillery, and War Production in Renaissance Florence.” Vulcan 4, no. 1 (August 1, 2016): 1–26.
    Navarro-Loidi, Juan. “Cadet Selection for the Royal Artillery in Spain, 1764–1808.” Vulcan 4, no. 1 (August 1, 2016): 27–51.
  • Guidi, Andrea. “‘Per Peli E per Segni’. Muster Rolls, Lists and Annotations: Practical Military Records Relating to the Last Florentine Ordinances and Militia, from Machiavelli to the Fall of the Republic (1506-1530).” Historical Research 89, no. 245 (August 2016).
  • Heuer, Jennifer Ngaire. “Celibacy, Courage, and Hungry Wives: Debating Military Marriage and Citizenship in Pre-Revolutionary France.” European History Quarterly 46, no. 4 (October 1, 2016): 647–67.
  • Way, Peter. “Militarizing the Atlantic World: Army Discipline, Coerced Labor, and Britain’s Commercial Empire.” Atlantic Studies 13, no. 3 (July 2, 2016): 345–69.
  • Schwoerer, Lois G. Gun Culture in Early Modern England. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2016.
  • Canning, Ruth A. “James Fitzpiers Fitzgerald, Captain Thomas Lee, and the Problem of ‘secret Traitors’: Conflicted Loyalties during the Nine Years’ War, 1594-1603.” Irish Historical Studies 39, no. 156 (November 2015): 573–94.
  • Aure, Andreas Harald. The Right to Wage War (Jus Ad Bellum): The German Reception of Grotius 50 Years after De Iure Belli Ac Pacis. BWV Verlag, 2015.
  • Persson, Mathias. “Mediating the Enemy: Prussian Representations of Austria, France and Sweden during the Seven Years War.” German History 32, no. 2 (June 1, 2014): 181–200.
  • Bruyn, Frans de, and Shaun Regan, eds. The Culture of the Seven Years’ War: Empire, Identity, and the Arts in the Eighteenth-Century Atlantic World. Toronto, Ontario: University of Toronto Press, Scholarly Publishing Division, 2014.

Set up keyword alerts in JSTOR and Academic Search Premier? Check.

Read general works on military strategy in history, even including some modern U.S. army/navy/air force publications, and scanned some of the more useful into PDFs using ScannX? Check.

But with the page image previewed on the screen

But with the page image previewed on the screen

Finished drafting paper on the levels of war and strategy for the John F. Guilmartin, Jr. conference next week? Not yet.

Agreed to be the university’s club advisor for Dagorhir Battle Games, where young men (not middle-aged professors) beat each other with foam clubs? That’s what you get for teaching military history, I guess.

rag28_0218

 

 

 

 

 

A Very Early Modern Olympics

I hope those EMEMHians among you are taking some time out of your busy summer schedule to watch some of the Rio Olympics coverage. In addition to the requisite soccer (aka “football”) and basketball viewing, I’ve decided to dip into the (European) martial arts. Which means adding a bit of fencing (I think I prefer sabre over foil and épée), archery, shooting, equestrian, and, of course, the pentathlon.

Sabre jump lunge

Sabre jump lunge

All of which makes me absolutely astounded at all the individual (or team, with a horse) skills a good early modern military officer was supposed to have. Presumably there are big differences between modern single-event sport specialists and early modern jack-of-all-trades military professionals. And the skills of the average army officer were likely far below what might qualify as “expert.” But it’s interesting to speculate about what historians might learn from such modern echoes of the martial past. As a few historians have done already: skulkers Erik Lund and Gavin Robinson come to mind.

I do wonder, though, what English longbowmen would have done with clickers, sights and stabilizers. And did a cuirass provide as much protection to cavalry troopers as those inflatable vests modern cross-countriers wear?

Modern archer

Modern archer

And I hope you military medical types out there are slightly amused that old-school cupping has joined space-age-polymer kinesio tape as the latest athletic fad:

Michael-Phelps-dives-at-Rio-jpg

So who wants to start a petition to get horse archery as an Olympic event? Maybe parade ground evolutions? Or perhaps add ramming to the rowing competitions, followed by some boarding and hand-to-hand: a new triathlon of rowing, followed by jumping/rope climbing, followed by cutlass fencing? (Sounds like Ninja Warrior, now that I think about it…) The possibilities are endless!

Late Summer Reading

As usual, us academics are in frantic end-of-summer research clean-up mode. So in the meantime I’ll mention some recent(ish) works of EMEMH interest.

First up, the latest Journal of Military History has two articles of note:

Tzoref-Ashkenazi, Chen. “German Military Participation in Early Modern European Colonialism.” Journal of Military History 80, no. 3 (July 2016): 671–95.
Abstract: The article examines the military participation of Germans in early modern colonialism, focusing on their service to colonial trading companies and colonial powers. It shows that the German colonial empire had a long pre-history, since German mercenaries provided a vital “tool of empire” for European colonial powers. The article argues that the extensive participation of German soldiers in early modern colonialism demonstrates a hybridity in European colonialism in that national colonial empires relied on trans-national European human resources in addition to local manpower. The article examines German soldiers’ identification with their colonial employers and shows that soldiers recruited as a group retained a stronger sense of separate identity.

Rommelse, Gijs, and Roger Downing. “Victims of an Ideological Rift? Dutch Prisoners of War during the First Anglo-Dutch War (1652–1654).” Journal of Military History 80, no. 3 (July 2016): 649–69.
Abstract: Dutch prisoners from the sea battles of the First Anglo-Dutch War of 1652–1654 were held in England under generally inhumane conditions. It has recently become accepted that ideological differences, as much as commercial, led to the deterioration in relations that led to the conflict. English public opinion had been inflamed by a vicious anti-Dutch propaganda campaign, suggesting that ideological demonization could provide the explanation for the dire treatment to which the prisoners were subjected. It is concluded, however, that logistical problems associated with their reception, plus the chronic lack of money of Cromwell’s regime, provide a sufficient explanation.

For my money, if you ever needed a single diagnostic test to whether a scholar qualifies as a “traditional” military historian, check to see whether their preferred explanatory variable is military, e.g. technical or logistical or tactical constraints, rather than cultural or social. A non-traditional military historian? They’re the ones who use terms like “hybridity”!

And then from a new collection on early modern primary sources:
Younger, Neil. “Warfare.” In Understanding Early Modern Primary Sources, edited by Laura Sangha and Jonathan Willis. Routledge, 2016.

And did I mention that Brian Sandberg’s new book is out?

Sandberg, Brian. War and Conflict in the Early Modern World: 1500-1700. Malden, MA: Polity, 2016.
Abstract: In this latest addition to the War & Conflict Through the Ages series, Brian Sandberg offers a truly global examination of the intersections between war, culture, and society in the early modern period. He traces the innovative military technologies and practices that emerged around 1500, exploring the different forms of warfare including dynastic war, religious warfare, raiding warfare, and peasant revolt  that shaped conflicts during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. He explains how significant social, economic, and political developments transformed warfare on land and at sea at a time of global imperialism and growing mercantilism, forcing states and military systems to respond to rapidly changing situations.  Engaging and insightful, War and Conflict in the Early Modern World will appeal to scholars and students of world history, the early modern period, and those interested in the broader relationship between war and society.

Nuff said.

Tea Time at the Met

Now that I’ve dipped my proverbial toe into the weird cult world of art museums, I’ve found a few more items that might be of interest for fellow EMEMHians who are procrastinating from their many research projects. I’ve accumulated a few museum exhibit guides that give the reader the opportunity to read the background of Karl V’s Tunis tapestries, and get more background on each of the pieces on display (see online Zotero group). Admittedly, it’s not the same as being there, but, still, these catalogs allow you to look silly and pretentious pointing at art in the comfort of your own home (or library).

1078-80

Since we’ll be going to the Frick to check out Watteau’s French soldiers, I thought I’d check out the massive Metropolitan Museum of Art (NYC) online, remembering that they have quite the collection of arms and armor – largest in the Western hemisphere they claim. Turns out they have a fair number of art pieces in their online catalog – or ‘catalogue’, if you think ‘theater’ should be spelled ‘theatre’. So, for example, if you were ever wondering what great-grandpa Louis le Grand gave to Prince Luis of Asturias for his fifth birthday c. 1712, you can, thanks to the Met:DT765

 

But to make a short story long, I’ll circuitously wind back to the title of the post. Turns out Europe and the U.S. both have rich people who pay lots of money to buy artwork. While in the Heeresgeschichtliches Museum (Vienna’s Military History Museum) a month back, I came across a collection of large prints of the ‘greatest Austrian hits’ of the War of the Spanish Succession, such as they were. The intimidating Latin title of the volume is Representatio Belli, ob succesionem in Regno Hispanico auspiciis trium potentiis. Invictiss. et gloriosiss. Caesarum Leopoldi. I. Josephi. I. et Caroli VI. intra 14. annos (Der Spanische Successions Krief unter drei Gossmächtigst. Unüberwindlichst-und Gloruwürdigsten Kenssern Leopoldo I. Josepho I. und Carolo VI. innerhalb 14 Jahren…), c. 1714, published by Jeremias Wolff. You’ve likely seen the format before, you can find similar illustrations of individual triumphs from the English, Dutch and French sides: triumphal engravings of battlefield victories (battles, sieges, naval victories) textually explicated on cherubim-suspended drapery and humanized by likenesses of selected participants. And don’t forget the marginal panoplies (martial cornucopia?) and allegorical figures. Something like this, in other words:

Repraesentatio belli 1715 large 8

If so inclined, you can download the whole book, in all its gory detail, at several places online.

Adding the work to my list, I just now happened upon an even more interesting variation in the Met’s collections. Turns out somebody wasn’t happy just looking at the pictures in a book, or maybe they wanted to look at the pretty pictures while having their cuppa and were afraid of stains. So the market, always efficiently satisfying demand, led one Ignaz Preissler to create a tea set with some of these same images. The Met acquired most of the tea service (and tracked down the rest), a researcher wrote up a description for art fans and the occasionally-interloping military historian, and Bob’s-your-uncle:

Pages from Repraesentatio_Belli_ob_successionem_in_Regno_Hispanico_The_Metropolitan_Museum_Journal_v_24_1989-2

(Note that Figure 10, the upper-right bowl, illustrates soldiers stripping a body.) For details, you can read all about it in Cassidy-Geiger, Maureen. “Repraesentatio Bell, Ob Successionem in Regno Hispanico…: A Tea Service and Garniture by the Schwarzlot Decorator Ignaz Preissler.” Metropolitan Museum Journal 24 (1989): 239–54, available here.

The Met has other publications online as well. Those of interest to EMEMHians include catalogues of fencing manuals, early modern crossbows, and of arms and armor more generally. So if you’re interested, head on over to the MetPublications page and choose the Thematic Category of European Art 17C-18C. Undoubtedly you can find similar online resources at other major museums. But, unfortunately for me, my research projects won’t finish themselves, so it’s back to the grind.